SHIH SHUN LIU
Its Rise and Its Decline
CHAPTER IX : UNILATERAL CANCELLATION
Notes by the Author (^)
 Rivier, Principes du droit des gens (Paris, 1896), vol. i, p. 544.
 U.S. Foreign Relations, 1914, p. 1092.
 Ibid., p. 1093.
 Ibid., p. 1094.
 Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey, Sept. 10, 1914, Parl. Pap., 1914-16 [Cd. 7628], Miscellaneous, no. 13 (1914). p. 23.
 Note Verbale communicated to the Sublime Porte, Oct. 1, 1914, ibid., p. 53.
 The Minister for Foreign Affairs to Ambassador Morgenthau, Dec. 5, 1914, U.S. Foreign Relations, 1915, p. 1302.
 U.S. Foreign Relations, 1915, p. 1304.
 The Secretary of State to Ambassador Morgenthau, Nov. 4, 1915, ibid., p. 1305.
 Great Britain, Parl. Pap., 1923 [Cmd. 1814], Turkey, no. 1 (1923), p. 478; France, Documents diplomatiques, Conférence de Lausanne, vol. i, pp. 450-451.
 "The Capitulations were, in principle, gracious concessions (concessions gracieuses). " Pradier-Fodéré, "La Question des Capitulations" R. D. I., vol. i, p. 119. According to another writer, it is a mistake to give to the Capitulations the name of treaties, which presuppose two contracting parties stipulating for their interests.
"Here [in the Capitulations] one finds only concessions and privileges and exemptions of pure liberality given by the Porte to France." Lawrence, Commentaire sur les éléments du droit international et sur lhistoire des progrès du droit des gens de Henry Wheaton (Leipzig, 1868-80), vol. iv, p. 123; cf. Ancien Diplomate, Le Régime des Capitulations, p. 9.
 Archives diplomatiques, 1870, vol. i, p. 249.
 "For it is an almost universally recognized fact that vital changes of circumstances may be of such a kind as to justify a party in demanding to be released from the obligations of an unnotifiable treaty. The vast majority of publicists, as well as the Governments of the Civilized States, defend the principle conventio omnis intelligitur rebus sic stantibus, and they agree, therefore, that all treaties are concluded under the tacit condition rebus sic stantibus." Oppenheim, International Law (3rd ed., Lon-don, 1920), vol. i, pp. 688-9.
 Ibid., p. 692.
 Ibid., cf. Phillimore, Three Centuries of Treaties of Peace (London, 1919), p. 138.
 Pouritch, De la clause "rebus sic stantibus" en droit international public (Paris, 1918), p. 81.
 Art. 7, Treaty of Paris, Mar. 30, 1856, State Papers, vol. xlvi, p. 12.
 See Chapter X
 It is interesting to note that even before the "Lausanne Conference of 1922-1923, the Turkish Government had consented in the suspension of the unilateral cancellation of the Capitulations. Russian Ambassador at Constantinople to Russian Minister of For. Aff., Sep. 18 (Oct. 1), 1914, Scott, Dip. Doc. relating to the Outbreak of the European War (New York, 1916), pt. ii, pp. 1422-3.